Ernesto Carlo B. Arada, MD, FPOA


Lecture Topic: Physical Examination of the Knee


Dr. Carlo Arada graduated from the University of the Philippines – College of Medicine and subsequently finished his Orthopedic residency training in the University of the Philippines – Philippine General Hospital. He pursued further fellowship training in Sports Medicine, Shoulder and Knee Arthroscopy at the St. Vincent’s and Nepean Hospitals in Sydney, Australia. He is currently an active consultant at the Asian Hospital and Medical Center, Perpetual Help Medical Center - Las Piñas, and Alabang Medical Center. 

Lecture: Physical Examination of the Knee


A proper history, inspection, range of motion, and palpation precedes the physical examination of the knee. Meniscal tests include the Lateral and Medial McMurray circumduction tests, Apley grind test, and Thessaly test. Patellar tests include the Patellar tilt test, Patellar grind test, Patellar glide test, Quadriceps angle, and the J Sign. Anterior cruciate ligament tests include the Anterior drawer test, Lachman test, and Pivot shift test. Other ligamentous tests are the Valgus and Varus stress tests, External rotation recurvatum

test, Dial test, and Posterior drawer test. Imaging such as radiographs and MRI shouldn’t be obtained in place of a thorough patient history and physical examination.